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All Studies   Meta Analysis
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Hospitalization/ER 82% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization/ER (b) 90% Recovery 67% Recovery time 12% no CI c19budesonide.com/ramakrishnan.html Favors budesonide Favors control
8 February 2021 - Early treatment study
Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial
Ramakrishnan et al., Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00160-0 (preprint 2/8) (Peer Reviewed)
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RCT with 73 budesonide patients and 73 control patients, showing significantly lower combined risk of an ER visit or hospitalization, and lower risk of no recovery at day 14.
risk of hospitalization/ER, 81.8% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.02, treatment 2 of 73 (2.7%), control 11 of 73 (15.1%), NNT 8.1, ITT.
risk of hospitalization/ER, 90.1% lower, RR 0.10, p = 0.004, treatment 1 of 70 (1.4%), control 10 of 69 (14.5%), NNT 7.7, PP.
risk of no recovery, 67.1% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.003, treatment 7 of 70 (10.0%), control 21 of 69 (30.4%), NNT 4.9, PP, day 14.
recovery time, 12.5% lower, relative time 0.88, treatment 70, control 69, PP.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
Ramakrishnan et al., 2/8/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, United Kingdom, Europe, peer-reviewed, 24 authors, average treatment delay 3.0 days.
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