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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 32% Improvement Relative Risk c19budesonide.com Holt et al. NCT04330599 COVIDENCE UK Budesonide Prophylaxis Favors budesonide Favors control
Holt, 15,227 patient budesonide prophylaxis study: 32% fewer cases [p=0.03] https://c19p.org/holtu
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Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487, COVIDENCE UK, NCT04330599 (history)
30 Mar 2021    Source   PDF   Share   Tweet
Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistical significance was not reached for any of these. Except for vitamin D, the results for treatments we follow were only adjusted for age, sex, duration of participation, and test frequency. NCT04330599 (history). COVIDENCE UK.
risk of case, 32.0% lower, OR 0.68, p = 0.03, treatment 913, control 14,314, adjusted per study, inhaled corticosteroids, minimally adjusted, group sizes approximated, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: significant unadjusted confounding possible.
Holt et al., 30 Mar 2021, prospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 34 authors, study period 1 May, 2020 - 5 February, 2021, trial NCT04330599 (history) (COVIDENCE UK).
Contact: a.martineau@qmul.ac.uk.
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