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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Budesonide COVID-19 studies. Recent:
Budesonide has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 8 countries (9 including non-government medical organizations). Submit updates/corrections.
Aug 10
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Budesonide for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 8 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvement is seen for mortality. 5 studies from 5 independent teams in 5 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (3 for the most serious outcome). • Meta analysis using th..
Apr 18
Late Gavriilidis et al., Clinical Immunology, doi:10.1016/j.clim.2022.109016
death, ↓73.7%, p=0.045
Combined administration of inhaled DNase, baricitinib and tocilizumab as rescue treatment in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure
Details   Small retrospective study of hospitalized patients with severe respiratory failure, 22 treated with a combination of budesonide, tocilizumab, baricitinib, dornase alfa, and salbutamol or/and ipratropium, and 26 SOC patients, showing lower..
Mar 16
Early Duvignaud et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2022.02.031
death, ↓80.2%, p=0.24
Inhaled ciclesonide for outpatient treatment of COVID-19 in adults at risk of adverse outcomes: a randomised controlled trial (COVERAGE)
Details   Early terminated RCT with 110 ciclesonide patients and 107 patients treated with vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9, B12, C, D3, and E, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc (Azinc Vitality), show..
Feb 10
Late Agustí et al., European Respiratory Journal, doi:10.1183/13993003.03036-2021
death, ↑22.5%, p=1.00
Add-on inhaled budesonide in the treatment of hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a randomised clinical trial
Details   Small early-terminated RCT with 40 inhaled budesonide and 49 control patients, showing no significant differences. 400µg/12h via Pulmicort Turbuhaler. TACTIC. NCT04355637.
Jan 8
PrEPPEP Monserrat Villatoro et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15010078
death, ↓49.0%, p=0.01
A Case-Control of Patients with COVID-19 to Explore the Association of Previous Hospitalisation Use of Medication on the Mortality of COVID-19 Disease: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Details   PSM retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of azithromycin, bemiparine, budesonide-formoterol fumarate, cefuroxime, colchicine, enoxaparin, ipratropium bromide, loratadine, mepyramine..
Dec 31
Late Alsultan et al., Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2021/2129006
death, ↑7.1%, p=1.00
Efficacy of Colchicine and Budesonide in Improvement Outcomes of Patients with Coronavirus Infection 2019 in Damascus, Syria: A Randomized Control Trial
Details   Small RCT 49 severe condition hospitalized patients in Syria, showing lower mortality with colchicine and shorter hospitalization time with both colchicine and budesonide (all of these not statistically significant).
Nov 22
Early Clemency et al., JAMA Internal Medicine, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6759
hosp., ↓54.1%, p=0.26
Efficacy of Inhaled Ciclesonide for Outpatient Treatment of Adolescents and Adults With Symptomatic COVID-19
Details   RCT 400 outpatients in the USA, showing significantly lower ER visits/hospital admission with ciclesonide treatment. NCT04377711. Publication was delayed about a year after completion and the primary endpoint was changed about 4 months af..
Nov 10
Late Al Sulaiman et al., Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, doi:10.1177/08850666211053548
death, ↓32.0%, p=0.13
The Role of Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICS) in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Cohort Study
Details   Combined retrospective (Mar-Jun 2020) and prospective (until Mar 2021) study of 954 COVID+ ICU patients in Saudi Arabia, 68 treated with ICS (80% budesonide or budesonide/formoterol, 20% fluticasone/salmeterol), showing lower mortality wi..
Oct 27
Early Baker et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.10.26.21265512 (Preprint) Dampening of the respiratory cytokine storm is promoted by inhaled budesonide in patients with early COVID-19
Details   Analysis of inflammatory mediators in the nasal mucosa of patients in the STOIC1 trial and a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 negative controls, showing that budesonide treatment decreased IL-33 and IFN-γ, implying a reduction in epithelial damage an..
Sep 9
PrEPPEP Lee et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
cases, ↓32.6%, p=0.10
Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Nationwide Population-based Study in South Korea
Details   Retrospective 44,968 patients in South Korea, 7,019 on inhaled corticosteroids, showing no statistically significant differences in COVID-19 cases.
Aug 23
PrEPPEP Strauss et al., The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2021.08.007
death, ↓23.5%, p=0.01
Intranasal Corticosteroids Are Associated with Better Outcomes in Coronavirus Disease 2019
Details   Retrospective 72,147 COVID-19+ patients in the USA, showing lower mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization with intranasal corticosteroid use.
Jul 20
In Vitro Heinen et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13071411 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Antiviral Effect of Budesonide against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing dose-dependent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 with budesonide.
May 5
In Vitro Konduri et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.05.442779 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
ProLung™-budesonide Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Reduces Lung Inflammation
Details   In Vitro study and animal study showing that ProLung™-budesonide inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication (results for budesonide were not provided). ProLung™-budesonide and budesonide significantly decreased lung inflammation. ProLung™-budesonide..
Apr 12
Late Yu et al., The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01744-X (preprint 4/12/21)
death, ↓39.1%, p=0.45
Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in people at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the community: interim analyses from the PRINCIPLE trial
Details   Interim results from the PRINCIPLE trial, 1,073 treated with budesonide starting a median of 6 days after symptom onset, showing lower hospitalization/death, and faster recovery with treatment. ISRCTN86534580.
Mar 30
PrEPPEP Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487
cases, ↓32.0%, p=0.03
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Feb 8
Early Ramakrishnan et al., Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00160-0 (preprint 2/8)
hosp./ER, ↓81.8%, p=0.02
Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial
Details   RCT with 73 budesonide patients and 73 control patients, showing significantly lower combined risk of an ER visit or hospitalization, and lower risk of no recovery at day 14.
Oct 18
Late Ramlall et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.20213546 (Preprint)
death, ↓71.0%, p=0.01
Melatonin is significantly associated with survival of intubated COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 948 intubated patients, 33 treated with budesonide, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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